Describe 3 of the deaths in Hamlet Essay Hamlet is a revenge tragedy play, which was a very popular theme at the time Shakespeare was writing. Hamlet was written at the time Shakespeare was writing at his very best. Hamlet was written over 400 years ago and has outlived most other revenge plays but still continues to hold great appeal due to the effect it has on all those who see and hear it As Hamlet is self-titled we know Hamlet will die and this event will bring a close to the play. Because we know how the play will end Shakespeare entices the audience by keeping us on the edge about when, where, how and why it will happen. In this essay I have chosen to write about the death of Gertrude, Claudius and Hamlet. All three characters die in the last Act, Act 5. Hamlet is a play set in Denmark. His father at the start of the play has already been brutally murdered by his (Hamlets) Uncle Claudius. brother to the deceased king. The ghost of his father appears to him and reveals how Claudius so cunningly murdered him, and begs Hamlet to avenge his death. Ghost: Revenge his foul and most unnatural murther Hamlet is already furious with Claudius for marrying his mother within such a short time of his fathers death. Hamlet: for look how cheerful my mother looks, and my father died withins two hours. This causes him to wonder if his mother had had any part in his fathers murder also. Hamlet within him vows to obey the ghost of his father. While all this is happening Fortinbras of Norway is invading Denmark with the aim of avenging his fathers death that was taken by the late king of Denmark, Hamlets father. Hamlet decides to have the players play a play similar to the death of his father to see the reaction of Claudius. Hamlet: Ill have these Players, Play something like the murder of my father, Before mine uncle. Ill observe his looks, He wants to be sure that the ghost was not evil and telling the truth. The play is a success and Hamlet can now be sure that Claudius is responsible for the death of his father. Gertrude, Hamlets mother along with everyone else are outraged by Hamlets change in character. Polonius, Lord Chamberlain, a good friend to the king believes Hamlet is mad as a result of his daughter Ophelia rejecting Hamlets love as he had ordered her too. Gertrude asks for her son to visit her in her bedroom. Here Hamlet mistakenly stabs Polonius who is hiding behind the curtains when he heard Hamlets footsteps approaching after having been talking to the queen. Queen: O what a rash and bloody deed this this! Polonius children now change in character. Ophelia turns mad and drowns herself, while Laertes returns from studying in France and is also driven to avenge his fathers death. Hamlets madness causes Claudius to send Hamlet to England. However, Hamlet who seems always to be one step ahead of the king knows Claudius has sent a letter requesting Hamlets death and switches the note with his own for Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, once friends of Hamlets, before they decided to betray him by becoming Claudius informants and so they are killed. Hamlet: Why do you think I am easier to be played on, than a pipe? Later Hamlet returns to Denmark, to much surprise of the king to see Ophelias burial. Throughout the play the audience are kept in suspense about as to when Hamlet will strike Claudius. Hamlet can be seen as a hero or villain. Shakespeare makes the audience see Hamlet as a hero. Through Hamlets soliloquies the audience feel as though they come to know Hamlet. In this they experience what he is going through and feel his hurt and pain, which is not enough to justify his killing on Claudius but to understand why he feels he must. Act 5 begins with the burial of Ophelia and shows the first confrontation between Laertes and Hamlet. Here Shakespeare allows the audience to acknowledge that both Laertes and Hamlet are suffering in the same way; although Laertes has lost both a father and sister, as Ophelias death was a result of her fathers. However, Shakespeare causes the audience to excuse Hamlets wrong deed and side with him. Scene two from this Act is the last in the play. Claudius falsely welcomes Hamlet home. However, Claudius and Laertes see Hamlets return as a suggestion to all their troubles, to kill Hamlet once and for all. They cunningly plan a duel between Laertes the best fighter and Hamlet. What they do not know is that Hamlet has been practicing during his time in England. Hamlet: since I went into France, I have been in continual practice; The fact that this is secretly revealed by Hamlet to Horatio, Hamlets good friend, reveals also a secret to the audience. At this point the audience cannot be sure if Hamlet will die, as the title suggests. The audience are at this point plagued with the fact that Laertes, Claudius and Fortinbras are all awaiting the day that Hamlet will die. During the wager Hamlet is the first to make a hit. Laertes and Hamlet soon scuffle and wound each other. However, Laertes sword has poison on so that when he hits Hamlet he will die. This was the plan of the king and Laertes. The king who also put a poison pearl into the win glass If Hamlet give the first, or second hit,.. is horrified when Gertrude drinks from the cup in honour of Hamlet giving the first hit. Gertrude soon dies. Queen: The drink, the drink, I am poisond. The fact that we never truly knew until this point that Gertrude was an innocent party in her husbands murder causes us to feel pity for her. We also pity her as Claudius tried to have her son executed and pretended to love her in order to keep the thrown. The audience can now see that Gertrude was tricked from the beginning by Claudius, as well as he taking her husbands life he has also taking her own. This shoes that Claudius was only looking after himself. We pity her because Claudius could never have loved her especially not as her husband did as he was the cause of her death. The way in which she was killed causes the audience to experience horror because we did not expect Gertrude to drink the wine. Also because it was her husband that allows her to die. Although he tries to stop her he does not try hard enough. King: Gertrude, do not drink. It horrifies us that Claudius was so eager to get rid of Hamlet that he even had two plans and so we fear what will happen next. Claudius is already aware that it will only be a matter of time before Hamlet will die as before Laertes did he had cut Hamlet. We also fear what Claudius has become and if he will stop at anything. Hamlet has now lost a mother and a father at the hands of Claudius. The audience are now fearful of the amount of hatred Hamlet must have for Claudius and fear how he will react. The sudden death of Hamlets father and Gertrude leaves the audience disturbed as both had no time to repent their sins and we fear if Gertrude will become Doomd for a certain term to walk the night: The plot of Hamlet thickens more and the audience at this point are left to wonder if Claudius will get away with his terrible deeds. However, during the scuffe hamlet picked up Laertes sword when it the scuffle it had been knocked forom his hand and Hamlet had wounded Laertes At this moment Laertes exchange forgiveness with Hamlet and his last few words ensure that the king, He is justly served. Laertes: the King, the Kings to blame. When Hamlet is sure that it was Treason he stabs the king and he is only then justly killd with mine own treachery. The king is now dead. At this point it is hard to pity Claudius because he has been the cause of so many lives being taken away. In spite of this we pity him because he is human and he did attempt to stop Gertrude which he did not have to do. We can also pity him because Hamlet and his parents had a good family and wealth and friends all of which Claudius did not. The audience have been forced from the start of the play to believe that there is an after life and world, heaven and hell. We therefore pity what will become of Claudius because he has been so bad. Ghost: My hour is almost come, When sulphurous and tormenting flames This shows that the ghost of Hamlets father is going to hell, so we pity Claudius as we assume he will be here also. On the other hand we cannot forget what Claudius has done and are horrified by his actions. The numerous ways he has tried to kill Hamlet on several occasions and stopping at nothing, no matter who he hurt in order to achieve his aim. We are again horrified by Claudius allowing his wife Gertrude to die. At this point it looks as though everyone with a path to the throne is dead. We now fear for the people of Denmark about who will save them from Fortinbras. Hamlet who was stabbed by Laertes with the poisonous sword is now feeling the effect of the poison and can feel it taking over him. Hamlet departs this life. Hamlet: I am dead, Shakespeare causes the audience to pity Hamlet because he has lost both his mother and father and lover. Claudius had been attempting to kill Hamlet for ages and because he kept failing the audience feel as though hamlet has outwitted Claudius until now and so maybe he would live. The audience have become attached to Hamlet and it hurts them to see him die. We pity Hamlet because he may also go to hell when he was only trying to get even with Claudius the way he thought was right. The audience also pity Hamlet as if Claudius had let his father be, then the ghost would not have told him the truth and he would still be alive. Nevertheless, we fear for Hamlet in the next life, and are horrified that Hamlet dies and Fortinbras is left to take the throne without opposition. Hamlet is very much a revenge tragedy. The first murder of his father led to a string of killings after it. In stating this it shows that certain deaths had to come first in order for others to occur. I think Shakespeares Hamlet has been such a success due to the truthful implications it deals with. Revenge is thought to be wrong, immoral, but in Hamlet Shakespeare expresses revenge as the natural human impulse that lies within us all. Hamlet is only acting out of the love he has for his father, which is undoubtedly the reaction each and every one of us would take. Although revenge was a popular theme during the time Hamlet was acted, Shakespeare takes it that great leap further which no author had began or even thought about doing. Instead of hating the avenger and wanting him to die we appreciate his aim and hence feel sorry for him at his death. Shakespeare forces us to perceive Hamlet for the person he is and not for the vile act he commits. The concept of Claudius having destroyed his family as well as his life remains at the forefront of our minds whilst watching the play and causes us to feel immense pity towards Hamlet and we the audience can therefore not loathe him. What makes Hamlet all the more fascinating is that we are kept in suspense as to if Gertrude had a part in the murder of her Husband. Throughout the play Shakespeare causes the audience to experience horror, pity and fear by making the next stage in the play all the more unpredictable. Just when we think we know what will happen due to what has been revealed to us through conversation and especially soliloquies does Shakespeare prove us wrong by adding an unexpected twist. I think Hamlet has also been such a success because it shows how life in this world is so short and puts fear into us about life in the next. It also shows how one incident can affect so many lives so much. The fact that Hamlet is betrayal within a family causes the audience to feel that little bit more afraid. When the tight unity between families is broken then respect for anyone can hardly be possible, as the ability to trust and love another must be hard. Even so Hamlet did and still does love Ophelia. Hamlet: I lovd Ophelia; forty thousand brothers Could not (with all their quantities of love) Make up my sum. What wilt thou do for her? Shakespeare causes even more pity towards Hamlet, as through this quote it is inevitable that Laertes loss was also a loss of Hamlets.
Linear Programming: Advantages, Disadvantages and Strategies I LINEAR PROGRAMMING In a decision-making embroilment, model formulation is important because it represents the essence of business decision problem. The term formulation is used to mean the process of converting the verbal description and numerical data into mathematical expressions which represents the relevant relationship among decision factors, objectives and restrictions on the use of resources. Linear Programming (LP) is a particular type of technique used for economic allocation of scarce or limited resources, such as labour, material, machine, time, warehouse space, capital, energy, etc. to several competing activities, such as products, services, jobs, new equipment, projects, etc. on the basis of a given criterion of optimally. The phrase scarce resources mean resources that are not in unlimited in availability during the planning period. The criterion of optimality generally is either performance, return on investment, profit, cost, utility, time, distance, etc. George B Dantzing while working with US Air Force during World War II, developed this technique, primarily for solving military logistics problems. But now, it is being used extensively in all functional areas of management, hospitals, airlines, agriculture, military operations, oil refining, education, energy planning, pollution control, transportation planning and scheduling, research and development, etc. Even though these applications are diverse, all I.P models consist of certain common properties and assumptions. Before applying linear programming to a real-life decision problem, the decision-maker must be aware of all these properties and assumptions. The word linear refers to linear relationship among variables in a model. Thus, a given change in one variable will always cause a resulting proportional change in another variable. For example, doubling the investment on a certain project will exactly double the rate of the return. The word programming refers to modelling and solving a problem mathematically that involves the economic allocation of limited resources by choosing a particular course of action or strategy among various alternative strategies to achieve the desired objective. STRUCTURE OF LINEAR PROGRAMMING General Structure of LP Model The general structure of LP model consists of three components. Decision variables (activities): We need to evaluate various alternatives (courses of action) for arriving at the optimal value of objective function. Obviously, if there are no alternatives to select from, we would not need LP. The evaluation of various alternatives is guided by the nature of objective function and availability of resources. For this, we pursue certain activities usually denoted by x1, x2xn. The value of these activities represents the extent to which each of these is performed. For example, in a product-mix manufacturing, the management may use LP to decide how many units of each of the product to manufacture by using its limited resources such as personnel, machinery, money, material, etc. These activities are also known as decision variables because they arc under the decision makers control. These decision variables, usually interrelated in terms of consumption of limited resources, require simultaneous solutions. All decision variables are continuous, controllable and non-negative. That is, x1>0, x2>0, .xn>0. The objective function: The objective function of each L.P problem is a mathematical representation of the objective in terms of a measurable quantity such as profit, cost, revenue, distance, etc. In its general form, it is represented as: Optimise (Maximise or Minimise) Z = c1x1 + c2X2. cnxn Where Z is the measure-of-performance variable, which is a function of x1, x2 , xn. Quantities c1, c2cn are parameters that represent the contribution of a unit of the respective variable x1, x2, xn to the measure-of-performance Z. The optimal value of the given objective function is obtained by the graphical method or simplex method. The constraints: There are always certain limitations (or constraints) on the use of resources, e.g. labour, machine, raw material, space, money, etc. that limit the degree to which objective can be achieved. Such constraints must be expressed as linear equalities or inequalities in terms of decision variables. The solution of an L.P model must satisfy these constraints. The linear programming method is a technique for choosing the best alternative from a set of feasible alternatives, in situations in which the objective function as well as the constraints can be expressed as linear mathematical functions. APPLICATION AREAS OF LINEAR PROGRAMMING Linear programming is the most widely used technique of decision-making in business and Industry and in various other fields. In this section, we will discuss a few of the broad application areas of linear programming. Agricultural Applications These applications fall into categories of farm economics and farm management. The former deals with agricultural economy of a nation or region, while the latter is concerned with the problems of the individual farm. The study of farm economics deals with inter-regional competition and optimum allocation of crop production. Efficient production patterns can be specified by a linear programming model under regional land resources and national demand constraints. Linear programming can be applied in agricultural planning, e.g. allocation of limited resources such as acreage, labour, water supply and working capital, etc. in a way so as to maximise net revenue. Military Applications Military applications include the problem of selecting an air weapon system against enemy so as to keep them pinned down and at the same time minimising the amount of aviation gasoline used. A variation of the transportation problem that maximises the total tonnage of bombs dropped on a set of targets and the problem of community defence against disaster, the solution of which yields the number of defence units that should be used in a given attack in order to provide the required level of protection at the lowest possible cost. Production Management Product mix: A company can produce several different products, each of which requires the use of limited production resources. In such cases, it is essential to determine the quantity of each product to be produced knowing its marginal contribution and amount of available resource used by it. The objective is to maximise the total contribution, subject to all constraints. Production planning: This deals with the determination of minimum cost production plan over planning period of an item with a fluctuating demand, considering the initial number of units in inventory, production capacity, constraints on production, manpower and all relevant cost factors. The objective is to minimise total operation costs. Assembly-line balancing: This problem is likely to arise when an item can be made by assembling different components. The process of assembling requires some specified sequence(s). The objective is to minimise the total elapse time. Blending problems: These problems arise when a product can be made from a variety of available raw materials, each of which has a particular composition and price. The objective here is to determine the minimum cost blend, subject to availability of the raw materials, and minimum and maximum constraints on certain product constituents. Trim loss When an item is made to a standard size (e.g. glass, paper sheet), the problem that arises is to determine which combination of requirements should be produced from standard materials in order to minimise the trim loss. Financial Management Portfolio selection: This deals with the selection of specific investment activity among several other activities. The objective is to find the allocation which maximises the total expected return or minimises risk under certain limitations. Profit planning: This deal with the maximisation of the profit margin from investment in plant facilities and equipment, cash in hand and inventory. Marketing Management Media selection: Linear programming technique helps in determining the advertising media mix so as to maximise the effective exposure, subject to limitation of budget, specified exposure rates to different market segments, specified minimum and maximum number of advertisements in various media. (if) Travelling salesman problem The problem of salesman is to find the shortest route from a given city, visiting each of the specified cities and then returning to the original point of departure, provided no city shall be visited twice during the tour. Such type of problems can be solved with the help of the modified assignment technique. Physical distribution: Linear programming determines the most economic and efficient manner of locating manufacturing plants and distribution centres for physical distribution. Personnel Management Staffing problem: Linear programming is used to allocate optimum manpower to a particular job so as to minimise the total overtime cost or total manpower. Determination of equitable salaries: Linear programming technique has been used in determining equitable salaries and sales incentives. Job evaluation and selection: Selection of suitable person for a specified job and evaluation of job in organisations has been done with the help of linear programming technique. Other applications of linear programming lie in the area of administration, education, fleet utilisation, awarding contracts, hospital administration and capital budgeting. ADVANTAGES OF LINEAR PROGRAMMING Following are certain advantages of linear programming: Linear programming helps in attaining the optimum use of productive resources. It also indicates how a decision-maker can employ his productive factors effectively by selecting and distributing (allocating) these resources. Linear programming techniques improve the quality of decisions. The decision-making approach of the user of this technique becomes more objective and less subjective. Linear programming techniques provide possible and practical solutions since there might be other constraints operating outside the problem which must be taken into account. Just because we can produce so many units docs not mean that they can be sold. Thus, necessary modification of its mathematical solution is required for the sake of convenience to the decision-maker. Highlighting of bottlenecks in the production processes is the most significant advantage of this technique. For example, when a bottleneck occurs, some machines cannot meet demand while other remains idle for some of the time. Linear programming also helps in re-evaluation of a basic plan for changing conditions. If conditions change when the plan is partly carried out, they can be determined so as to adjust the remainder of the plan for best results. LIMITATIONS OF LINEAR PROGRAMMING There should be an objective which should be clearly identifiable and measurable in quantitative terms. It could be, for example, maximisation of sales, of profit, minimisation of cost, and so on, which is not possible in real life. The activities to be included should be distinctly identifiable and measurable in quantitative terms, for instance, the products included in a production planning problem and all the activities cant be measured in quantitative terms for example if labour is sick, which will decrease his performance which cant be measured. The resources of the system which arc to be allocated for the attainment of the goal should also be identifiable and measurable quantitatively. They must be in limited supply. The technique would involve allocation of these resources in a manner that would trade off the returns on the investment of the resources for the attainment of the objective. The relationships representing the objective as also the resource limitation considerations, represented by the objective function and the constraint equations or inequalities, respectively must be linear in nature, which is not possible. There should be a series of feasible alternative courses of action available to the decision makers, which are determined by the resource constraints. When these stated conditions are satisfied in a given situation, the problem can be expressed in algebraic form, called the Linear Programming Problem (LPP) and then solved for optimal decision. While solving an LP model, there is no guarantee that we will get integer valued solutions. For example, in finding out how many men and machines would be required lo perform a particular job, a non-integer valued solution will be meaningless. Rounding off the solution to the nearest integer will not yield an optimal solution. In such cases, integer programming is used to ensure integer value to the decision variables. Linear programming model does not take into consideration the effect of time and uncertainty. Thus, the LP model should be defined in such a way that any change due to internal as well as external factors can be incorporated. Sometimes large-scale problems can be solved with linear programming techniques even when assistance of computer is available. For it, the main problem can be fragmented into several small problems and solving each one separately. Parameters appearing in the model are assumed to be constant but in real-life situations, they are frequently neither known nor constant. Parameters like human behaviour, weather conditions, stress of employees, demotivated employee cant be taken into account which can adversely effect any organisation Only one single objective is dealt with while in real life situations, problems come with multi-objectives. II SITUATION ANALYSIS Phang furniture system Inc. (Fursys) manufactures two models of stools, Potty which is basic model and a better model called Hardy. SUPPLIES Maximum of 350 pounds plastic per day at the rate of $1.5 per pound by Keow supplies Up to 30 boxes of legs per day at the rate of $7.5 per box. Each box has 10 sets of legs by Yuen supplies Using linear programming the optimal production should be determined for maximum profit. Decision Variables The production units are in terms of number on daily basis. Therefore the decision variables are: Let, X1 = No. of Pottys production daily X2 = No. of Hardys production daily Objective Function The objective in the problem is to attain maximum profit. We have selling price for Potty and Hardy as $12.75 and $18. We need to calculate the unit profit gained by selling Potty and Hardy. Cost of production for 1 Potty = one pound plastic + one set of leg = ($1.5*1) + $0.75(1) = $2.25 Profit made by selling = $12.75 $2.25 = $10.5 Cost of production for 1 Hardy = 1.5 pound of plastic + one set of leg = ($1.5*1.5) + ($0.75*1) = $3 Unit profit made by selling Hardy = $18 $3 = $15 Constraints Plastic Potty requires one pound of plastic and Hardy requires 1.5 pound plastic. So the total plastic used daily is: (1)X1 + (1.5)X2 This plastic supply cant exceed the limit of 350 pounds daily, so constraint is (1)X1 + (1.5)X2 <= 350 Legs Both the model require one set of each legs each for its production. So the sets of legs used daily is (1)X1 + (1)X2 The no of set of legs cant exceed the limit of 300, so the constraint is (1)X1 + (1)X2 <= 300 Production time Potty can be manufactured in 15 minutes and Hardy can be manufactured in 24minutes. So the total time taken for manufacturing both stools in order to achieve maximum profit is: (15)X1 + (24)X2 The production time cant exceed 80 hours(4800 minutes) on daily basis. Therefore the constraint is, (15)X1 + (24)X2 <=4800 Non-negativity Negative production of Potty and Hardy stool is not possible. Therefore, X1,X2 >=0 Mathematical model Maximize, 10.5X1 + 15X2 (total daily profit) Subject to constraints, X1 + 1.5X2 <= 350(plastic in pound) X1 + X2 <= 300(sets of legs) 15X1 + 24X2 <= 4800(production time in minutes) X1,X2 >=0(non-negativity) Solution from winqsb Assignment WINQSB output.bmp According to WINQSB, when Potty produced(X1) = 266.67 and Hardy produced(X2) = 33.33, Fursys can get a maximum profit of 3,300. Therefore the optimum solution is X1 = 266.67 X2 = 33.33 Net income Fursys makes a maximum profit of $3300 per day. Its fixed cost, namely for overheads and family labour is about $2800 per day. Therefore, Net income of Fursys is = Profit- Fixed cost = $3300-$2800 = $500 Sensitivity Analysis Range of optimality After achieving optimal solution, Fursys will be concerned about how the solution may be affected if any one of the objective function co-efficient is changed. Depending on the value of the objective function co-efficient the optimal solution may vary. Assignment WINQSB output.bmp From above table we can conclude that: 9.375 <= C1 (UNIT COST OF ONE POTTY) >= 15 10.500 <=C2 (UNIT COST OF ONE HARDY) >=16.800 Reduced costs: The amount, the optimal profit will change per unit increase in the variable from its lower bound, while assuming there are no changes in the input parameters is called reduced costs. Reduces costs are usually zero. Shadow price: Shadow price is the premium value above the existing unit value for the resource if the need arises to purchase more resources, which means slack or surplus is zero. When there is a slack or surplus of resources there is no need to purchase more. Hence the shadow price is zero. In the above problem after one day of production, there is a surplus of 33.333 pounds of plastic, therefore there is no shadow price. But all sets of legs were used to manufacture stools and therefore the slack or surplus for sets of legs is zero. So it has a shadow price of $3. Now if Fursys wants to buy more sets of legs it has a perceives value to pay is original price + shadow price = $0.75 + $3 = $3.75 per set of legs Range of feasibility: The range of feasibility is the range of values for which the shadow prices of resources remain unchanged, however optimal solution will change. When the amount or number of resources goes beyond the range, a new shadow price arises. In this problem, when the number of legs go beyond 320, the value of the shadow price changes. Therefore, for the same shadow price, only 20 more sets of legs can be purchased. Likewise when we see for the plastics to be bought, the upper limit is infinity and since theres already surplus of plastic, theres no need to buy anymore. Analysis of available solutions Option1: Seeking additional source of plastic As shown in figure from winqsb output that at the end of a days production there is a surplus of plastic 33.333 pounds. Since there is surplus of plastic, there is no need to look for additional sources of plastic. However if the demand of the products increase and surplus is finished then Fursys can purchase additional plastic. From the range of feasibility we can see that the upper limit of the amount of plastic is infinity, therefore any amount of plastic can be purchased. Option2: Taking up Yuen Supplies offer to deliver an extra cost of 10 sets of legs From the WINQSB solution we can see that the maximum sets of legs the maximum no of set of legs can be purchased per day is 320. The current number of legs used per day is 300, so we can conclude that Fursys can buy 10 extra set of legs from Yuen supplies as it is under feasibility. Option3: Adding a part time worker (4 hours a day) for $50 per day Fursys considers its labour cost as sunk for business. By adding up an extra worker, the cost of worker will be considered as sunk cost only. Adding up a worker will increase production time by 240 minutes per day, this lies within the limit of range of feasibility. Hence option of extra worker can be taken into account. Application of 100% rule to evaluate option 2 and 3 can be implemented at the same time 100% rule is used to evaluate whether different options available for a company are feasible or not. It involves calculations of increase or decrease in an objective function coefficient to the maximum possible increase or decrease as determined by the limits of the range of optimality. Here we will consider option 2 and 3 for Fursys and will see if both options are feasible at the same time. Option 2 considered first When Fursys buy 10 extra set of legs then: Total cost of legs = 300*0.75(for 300 legs) + 25(for extra 10 legs) = $250 Cost of 310 legs = $250 Cost of 1 leg = 250/310 = $.80 When Fursys buys 300 legs then cost of each set of leg =$ 0.75 So there is an increase in price of legs by $.05 by buying 10 extra set of legs, since profit is inversely proportional to increase in cost price so profit decrease by $0.05 for both Potty and Hardy Applying 100% rule New cost price for Pottys is = $10.45 Now we will calculate % change in profit Formula is: percentage change = (change/maximum change) * 100 = (0.05/1.125) * 100 = 4.44% New cost price for Hardys is = $14.95 Similarly like potty we will calculate % change in profit for hardy Formula is: percentage change = (change/maximum change) * 100 = 1.11% Option 3 (diagram) The additional worker works for 4 hours i.e. 240 minutes and will receive $50 as wages Since Fursys considers labour cost as sunk cost so there will be no effect on cost of product Now calculating % change for time constraint. Maximum permissible production time is 600 minutes. We will calculate % change in time Formula is: percentage change = (change/maximum change) * 100 = (240/600)*100 = 40% According to 100% rule, adding all percentage change we get 45.5% which is less then 100%, so option 2 and option 3 can be used together. Recommendations
Black Consciousness in the Twentieth Century Essay
Ralph Ellison began his 1952 novel with the sentence; â€œI am an invisible man.â€ (Ellison 3) These five words summed up the way in which the majority of Black Americans felt about their place in society at the time. The Civil Rights Movement was still years away, and the caste of American society had placed the Black American near the bottom. The book is in the first person narrative, narrated by a man who considers himself by societyâ€™s view point to be invisible because of his race.
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â The self-awareness of the Black American was limited to only what the white establishment would allow â€“ and in the majority of the country, that was very little. However, the essence for the change that would occur had already been born. The awakening, in the late 1950s, of the Black American would take place in religion, politics, self-awareness and literature. This would become exemplified by the manner in which women in the black communities were treated. The rise of domestic violence was an issue, even in 1950s America â€“ and in both the homes of blacks and whites.
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â There would be, though, differences in which this awakening would manifest itself. For some, like those who would march with Martin Luther King, non-violence and pacifism would be the dominate tool to their awakening. For others, the awakening would come in the form of a religious rebirth, and strong assertion of their place in society.
There was a responsibility being neglected in the role of the black male to uphold his place of caregiver to his wife and family â€“ as well as to the community as a whole. This was an important issue to realize, as the teachings of Islam would tell. â€œThe white man wants black men to stay immoral, unclean, an ignorantâ€. (223).
During the course of the novel the protagonists lists ways in which he has become invisible and the reaction he stirs within society because of his â€˜blacknessâ€™, and as Ellis illustrates in the prologue of the book, â€œI live rent-free in a building rented strictly to whites, in a section of the basement that was shut off and forgotten during the nineteenth century.â€ (Ellis prologue).Â The narrator goes on to state that light is a necessity for him since light to him is equivalent to truth (much as it was in Platoâ€™s cave â€“ so here the reader gains a sense of philosophy and of intelligence from the narrator).
Throughout the course of the events that aid in defining the narrator the major first event occurs on his collegeâ€™s campus.Â The epiphany that the invisible man has during this time is that a black man whom he had once aspired to be like (i.e. to leave a legacy for his college) is not at all worthy of his aspiration but instead is merely a black man who has disguised himself enough to be able to â€˜surviveâ€™ in the white dominated society.Â Thus, the invisible man has his first exposure to mis-identities and the almost innate need that black men feel they have to become someone else in order to be a part of white society.
In another act of deception in the book, the narrator (after a boiler room â€˜accidentâ€™) is hospitalized; during a state of consciousness he discovers that he has been experimented upon with shock treatment without his knowledge.Â This is a severe breach of his constitutional rights as well as his humanity.Â Thus, the narrator finds out that he is not considered to be human, or even subhuman but rather a thing, an object, a less than real entity whose presence is a constant element of scorn and fear to the white race (at least through each of the experiences the invisible man has had with white people).
Thus, not only is he destroyed through the perception of white people but through his own culture and race as Dr. Bledsoe has given the invisible man letters of recommendation whose intent was merely to waylay the invisible man from coming back to college and to not (as the invisible man had thought was their intention) to get him a job.Â Therefore the invisible man is hoodwinked by a person whom he thought he could trust and this leads him to further epiphanies of himself and his race and eitherâ€™s misconception.
The novel is truly about self-awareness through objective perception.Â Although the narrator finds brief solace with the Brotherhood and brother Jack (a black organization seeking to unite the black community in New York), this soon turns into another form of hate through jealousy.Â The narratorâ€™s position is replaced and he travels outside of Harlem only to return and find his friend dead.Â Despite efforts to try and unite the Brotherhood again, the narrator is soon forced to recognized his grandfatherâ€™s maxim, â€œover come em with yeses, undermine em with grins, agree em to death and destruction. . . (Ellis).
The novel is about a man whose invisibility is plagues by mis-identity, and whose overall undertones of outside prejudices define his life as well as his identity up to a point.Â The â€˜yes manâ€™ that his grandfather advised him to do was a type of camouflage technique in which a man can exist wholly without being noticed by being, in essence, no one at all â€“ by becoming invisible in order to survive.Â The sacrifice that the invisible man does is to waylay his hopes and dreams in order to be nothing so that he may survive, not be gunned down by either Brother Jack or by the police.Â In essence Ellisâ€™ book contributed greatly to the recognition of the black consciousness and the state of the Civil Rights movement in order for blacks to not be invisible in order to exist.
Ellison, Ralph. The Invisible Man. Random House Inc. New York. Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â 1952.
Gates, Henry Louis. The Signifying Monkey: A Theory of African-American Literary Criticism.Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â New York: Oxford UP, 1988.
Klein, Marcus. After Alienation: American Novels in Mid-Century. New York: World, 1964.
McSweeney, Kerry. Invisible Man: Race and Identity. Boston: Twayne, 1988.
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